Haben sich William Shakespeare und Queen Elizabeth I jemals getroffen?

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1702 erzählte der Dramatiker und Kritiker John Dennis eine bezaubernde Geschichte. Dennis zufolge hatte William Shakespeares Theatertruppe, Lord Chamberlains Men, die Henry IV-Stücke am Hof ​​von Elizabeth I aufgeführt bat um ein Stück, in das sich die Figur verliebte. & # x201C; Sie war so gespannt, wie es sich auswirkte. & # x201D; Dennis schrieb, dass sie befohlen habe, dass es in 14 Tagen fertig sei. & # X201D; Shakespeare verpflichtet, und das Ergebnis war der Comic Frohe Frauen von Windsor. Zu guter Letzt enthielt das Stück viele lobende Anspielungen auf Elizabeth.

Während viele Wissenschaftler davon ausgehen, dass diese Geschichte tatsächlich eine Grundlage hat, haben Historiker und Künstler jahrhundertelang verzweifelt versucht, die Beziehung zwischen Shakespeare und der Königin zu bestimmen. Ein gefälschter Brief von Elizabeth an den Dramatiker, Shakespeare in der Liebe und Charles Beauclerks Behauptung, Shakespeare sei der uneheliche Sohn der Königin, sind Beispiele für unsere endlose Faszination. Eine lange Geschichte von Menschen, die wollen, dass Shakespeare Elizabeth ist's Favorit & # x201D; Professor Michael Dobson vom Shakespeare-Institut erklärte im Podcast Sprechen wir über Shakespeare. "Er ist der Vater der nationalen Kultur." Sie ist die Art Mutter der Nation. offensichtlich hätten sie in irgendeiner Beziehung stehen sollen. & # x201D;

Shakespeare hat Elizabeth I. vielleicht schon als kleiner Junge getroffen

Es besteht kein Zweifel, dass die Königin eine große Gönnerin der Künste war und sie persönlich sehr genoss. & x201C; Elizabeth hatte eine Leidenschaft für das Theater und schützte es aktiv vor den Puritanern, die es verboten haben wollten. & x201D; Alison Weir schreibt in Das Leben von Elizabeth I.. 1583 gründete sie ihre eigene Theaterkompanie, die Queen's Men, deren Lieblingsdarsteller der Comicschauspieler Richard Tarleton war, dessen Mätzchen sie vor Lachen zum Weinen bringen konnten.

Laut dem Shakespeare-Biographen Peter Ackroyd gibt es eine "hübsche Geschichte". in Bezug auf das erste Mal hat der zukünftige Barde möglicherweise die Königin im Auge. Im Jahr 1575 hielt Elizabeth in Kenilworth Castle, 12 Meilen von seiner Heimatstadt Stratford. Da der Vater von Shakespeare, John, ein lokaler Würdenträger war, wäre er zweifellos aufgefordert worden, an den Feierlichkeiten teilzunehmen, zu denen Festzüge, Masken und Sketche gehörten, die auf einem künstlichen See aufgeführt wurden. Es wurde vermutet, dass er den elfjährigen William mitgebracht hat, und einige haben auf Zeilen in hingewiesen Ein Sommernachtstraum und Zwölfte Nacht die scheinen auf das Ereignis anzuspielen.

Ein Stich, der Shakespeare beim Rezitieren eines Werkes vor dem Gericht von Elisabeth I. zeigt

Foto: Archivfotos / Getty Images

Shakespeare'Die Theatertruppe war ein Favorit von Elizabeth I.'s

Nachdem der Lieblingstarleton der Königin 1588 gestorben war, verloren die Männer der Königin ihren Glanz. Neue Unterhaltungen wurden vor Gericht gebracht, und in den 1590er Jahren waren die Männer des jungen Shakespeare-Lord Chamberlains der letzte Schrei. Wir wissen, dass sie im Dezember 1594 vor Elizabeth erschienen sind. Im März 1595 erhielten Shakespeare und zwei Kollegen 20 Pfund für zwei Komödien, die zuletzt vor Ihrer Majestät zu Weihnachten gezeigt wurden.

1598 erschien der Titel einer gedruckten Ausgabe von Die Arbeit der Liebe ist verloren lesen:

Eine angenehme eingebildete Komödie namens "Love's Labour's Lost". Wie es vor ihrer Hoheit dieses letzte Weihnachten präsentiert wurde. Neu korrigiert und ergänzt von W. Shakespeare.

In den späten 1590er Jahren scheinen die Herren von Lord Chamberlain bei Elizabeth und ihrem Hof ​​so etwas wie ein Favorit geworden zu sein. Diese Leistungen & # x2013; am häufigsten zur Weihnachtszeit aufgeführt & # x2013; Es handelte sich nicht um intime, beiläufige Angelegenheiten, sondern um sorgfältig inszenierte Ereignisse mit einer klaren Abgrenzung zwischen Schauspielern und Publikum. Im Shakespeare: Die Biographie, Ackroyd erklärt, was sie mit sich brachten:

Die Schauspieler kamen nicht einfach mit ihren Kostümen und Instrumenten. Sie mussten zuerst die Stücke einstudieren, die für das Vergnügen Ihrer Majestät vorgesehen waren, bevor der Meister der Offenbarungen, Edmund Tilney, sie unter die Lupe nahm. Tilney würde als Zensor fungieren und jene Linien entfernen, die für das königliche Ohr unansehnlich oder beleidigend sein könnten. Er lieh der Firma auch kostspieligere Kostüme, wenn sie gebraucht wurden; am Hof ​​könnten einige ihrer Kleider und Mäntel abgenutzt erschienen sein & # x2026; Als alles geklärt war, nahmen sie ein Boot flussabwärts. Die große Halle in Greenwich war für die Aufführung geräumt worden. Die Bühne befand sich an einem Ende und das königliche Podium befand sich am anderen Ende. Die Musiker wurden auf den Holzbalkon über der Bühne gestellt, und die Schauspieler konnten den Durchgang hinter der Leinwand als ihren "anstrengenden" Auftritt nutzen. Raum. & # x201D; Das Publikum, das nach königlichem Ermessen eingeladen wurde, versammelte sich in ihren formellen Gewändern, bevor die Königin selbst eintraf.

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Es scheint 'sehr wahrscheinlich' dass Shakespeare und Elizabeth, die ich getroffen habe ... Aber sie waren wahrscheinlich nicht da't Freunde

Haben sich Shakespeare und Elizabeth getroffen? Die Antwort lautet: wahrscheinlich. "Es ist sehr wahrscheinlich, dass die Schauspieler, wenn sie am Hof ​​spielten, ihrem Gastgeber vorgestellt wurden", sagte Professor Sir Stanley Wells Lassen Sie uns über Shakespeare sprechen. & # x201C; Wir haben keine direkten Aufzeichnungen darüber, insbesondere in Anbetracht der Häufigkeit, mit der die Schauspieler vor Gericht gingen & # x2013; und wir wissen auch, dass einige der Schauspieler sich mit Mitgliedern der Aristokratie sehr angefreundet haben. & # x201D;

Es ist jedoch unwahrscheinlich, dass sie sich nahe standen oder sogar freundlich waren. Die Freundschaften der Königin waren immer ein Thema intensiven Klatsches, und es gibt keine Aufzeichnungen über ein Flüstern über die beiden. Tatsächlich hatten sie allen Grund, sich nicht zu mögen & # x2013; Shakespeare hatte katholische Sympathien im Widerspruch zur protestantischen Königin gekannt.

Der Dramatiker malte Könige oft in einem ungünstigen Licht. Im Jahr 1601 berichtete ein Besucher, dass Elizabeth ironisch kommentierte: "Ich bin Richard der Zweite, wisst ihr das nicht?" und beschwerte sich, dass Shakespeares Drama vierzig Mal in offenen Straßen und Häusern gespielt wurde. Sie darf ihm aber nicht zu böse gewesen sein, denn die Herren von Lord Chamberlain traten im nächsten Winter sechs Mal vor Gericht auf. Es wird auch behauptet, dass Elizabeth kurz vor ihrem Tod darum gebeten hatte Ein Sommernachtstraum.

Als Elizabeth 1603 starb, wurde Shakespeare öffentlich dafür getadelt, dass er die jungfräuliche Königin nicht richtig gepriesen hatte. Nur sechs Tage, nachdem ihr Nachfolger James I. gekrönt worden war, wurden die Männer des Lord Chamberlain zum Männer des Königs und Shakespeare zum Bräutigam der Kammer ernannt. Sie würden weit mehr für das jakobinische Gericht auftreten als je zuvor für Elizabeth. Und so scheint es, dass Berichte über eine große Freundschaft zwischen der Königin und dem Barden wahrscheinlich & # x2013; wie viele von Shakespeares phantasievollen Stücken & # x2013; einfach Wunschdenken. 

Von Hadley Meares

Hadley Meares ist ein in Los Angeles ansässiger historischer Journalist.

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